Offline GnuPG Master Key and Subkeys on YubiKey NEO Smartcard

I have moved to a new OpenPGP key. There are many tutorials and blog posts on GnuPG key generation around, but none of them matched exactly the setup I wanted to have. So I wrote down the steps I took, to remember them if I need to in the future. Briefly my requirements were as follows:

  • The new master GnuPG key is on an USB stick.
  • The USB stick is only ever used on an offline computer.
  • There are subkeys stored on a YubiKey NEO smartcard for daily use.
  • I want to generate the subkeys using GnuPG so I have a backup.
  • Some non-default hash/cipher preferences encoded into the public key.

Continue reading Offline GnuPG Master Key and Subkeys on YubiKey NEO Smartcard

OpenPGP Key Transition Statement

I have created a new OpenPGP key 54265e8c and will be transitioning away from my old key. If you have signed my old key, I would appreciate signatures on my new key as well. I have created a transition statement that can be downloaded from

Below is the signed statement.

Hash: SHA512

OpenPGP Key Transition Statement for Simon Josefsson

I have created a new OpenPGP key and will be transitioning away from
my old key.  The old key has not been compromised and will continue to
be valid for some time, but I prefer all future correspondence to be
encrypted to the new key, and will be making signatures with the new
key going forward.

I would like this new key to be re-integrated into the web of trust.
This message is signed by both keys to certify the transition.  My new
and old keys are signed by each other.  If you have signed my old key,
I would appreciate signatures on my new key as well, provided that
your signing policy permits that without re-authenticating me.

The old key, which I am transitioning away from, is:

pub   1280R/B565716F 2002-05-05
      Key fingerprint = 0424 D4EE 81A0 E3D1 19C6  F835 EDA2 1E94 B565 716F

The new key, to which I am transitioning, is:

pub   3744R/54265E8C 2014-06-22
      Key fingerprint = 9AA9 BDB1 1BB1 B99A 2128  5A33 0664 A769 5426 5E8C

The entire key may be downloaded from:

To fetch the full new key from a public key server using GnuPG, run:

  gpg --keyserver --recv-key 54265e8c

If you already know my old key, you can now verify that the new key is
signed by the old one:

  gpg --check-sigs 54265e8c

If you are satisfied that you've got the right key, and the User IDs
match what you expect, I would appreciate it if you would sign my key:

  gpg --sign-key 54265e8c

You can upload your signatures to a public keyserver directly:

  gpg --keyserver --send-key 54265e8c

Or email (possibly encrypted) the output from:

  gpg --armor --export 54265e8c

If you'd like any further verification or have any questions about the
transition please contact me directly.

To verify the integrity of this statement:

  wget -q -O-|gpg --verify

Version: GnuPG v1.4.12 (GNU/Linux)


Creating a small JPEG photo for your OpenPGP key

I’m in the process of moving to a new OpenPGP key, and I want to include a small JPEG image of myself in it. The OpenPGP specification describes, in section 5.12.1 of RFC 4880, how an OpenPGP packet can contain an JPEG image. Unfortunately the document does not require or suggest any properties of images, nor does it warn about excessively large images. The GnuPG manual helpfully asserts that “Note that a very large JPEG will make for a very large key.”.

Researching this further, it seems that proprietary PGP program suggests 120×144 as the maximum size, although I haven’t found an authoritative source of that information. Looking at the GnuPG code, you can see that it suggests around 240×288 in a string saying “Keeping the image close to 240×288 is a good size to use”. Further, there is a warning displayed if the image is above 6144 bytes saying that “This JPEG is really large”.

I think the 6kb warning point is on the low side today, however without any more researched recommendation of image size, I’m inclined to go for a 6kb 240×288 image. Achieving this was not trivial, I ended up using GIMP to crop an image, resize it to 240×288, and then export it to JPEG. Chosing the relevant parameters during export is the tricky part. First, make sure to select ‘Show preview in image window’ so that you get a file size estimate and a preview of how the photo will look. I found the following settings useful for reducing size:

  • Disable “Save EXIF data”
  • Disable “Save thumbnail”
  • Disable “Save XMP data”
  • Change “Subsampling” from the default “4:4:4 (best quality)” to “4:2:0 (chroma quartered)”.
  • Try enabling only one of “Optimize” and “Progressive”. Sometimes I get best results disabling one and keeping the other enabled, and sometimes the other way around. I have not seen smaller size with both enabled, nor with both disabled.
  • Smooth the picture a bit to reduce pixel effects and size.
  • Change quality setting, I had to reduce it to around 25%.

See screenshot below of the settings windows.

GnuPG photo GIMP settings window

Eventually, I managed to get a photo that I was reasonable happy with. It is 240×288 and is 6048 bytes large.

GnuPG photo for Simon

If anyone has further information, or opinions, on what image sizes makes sense for OpenPGP photos, let me know. Ideas on how to reduce size of JPEG images further without reducing quality as much would be welcome.