The Case for Short OpenPGP Key Validity Periods

After I moved to a new OpenPGP key (see key transition statement) I have received comments about the short life length of my new key. When I created the key (see my GnuPG setup) I set it to expire after 100 days. Some people assumed that I would have to create a new key then, and therefore wondered what value there is to sign a key that will expire in two months. It doesn’t work like that, and below I will explain how OpenPGP key expiration works; how to extend the expiration time of your key; and argue why having a relatively short validity period can be a good thing.
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Wifi on S3 with Replicant

I’m using Replicant on my main phone. As I’ve written before, I didn’t get Wifi to work. The other day leth in #replicant pointed me towards a CyanogenMod discussion about a similar issue. The fix does indeed work, and allowed me to connect to wifi networks and to setup my phone for Internet sharing. You need to run the following commands after every boot, disable/enable Wifi, and then it should work.

echo murata > /data/.cid.info
chown system /data/.cid.info
chgrp wifi /data/.cid.info
chmod 0660 /data/.cid.info

Digging deeper, I found a CM Jira issue about it, and ultimately a code commit. It seems the issue is that more recent S3’s comes with a Murata Wifi chipset that uses MAC addresses not known back in the Android 4.2 (CM-10.1.3 and Replicant-4.2) days. Pulling in the latest fixes for macloader.cpp solves this problem for me, and there is no need for the workaround above. I still need to load the non-free firmware images that I get from CM-10.1.3. I’ve created a pull request fixing macloader.cpp for Replicant 4.2 if someone else is curious about the details. You have to rebuild your OS with the patch for things to work (if you don’t want to, the workaround using /data/.cid.info works fine), and install some firmware blobs as below.

adb push cm-10.1.3-i9300/system/etc/wifi/bcmdhd_apsta.bin_b1 /system/vendor/firmware/
adb push cm-10.1.3-i9300/system/etc/wifi/bcmdhd_apsta.bin_b2 /system/vendor/firmware/
adb push cm-10.1.3-i9300/system/etc/wifi/bcmdhd_mfg.bin_b0 /system/vendor/firmware/
adb push cm-10.1.3-i9300/system/etc/wifi/bcmdhd_mfg.bin_b1 /system/vendor/firmware/
adb push cm-10.1.3-i9300/system/etc/wifi/bcmdhd_mfg.bin_b2 /system/vendor/firmware/
adb push cm-10.1.3-i9300/system/etc/wifi/bcmdhd_p2p.bin_b0 /system/vendor/firmware/
adb push cm-10.1.3-i9300/system/etc/wifi/bcmdhd_p2p.bin_b1 /system/vendor/firmware/
adb push cm-10.1.3-i9300/system/etc/wifi/bcmdhd_p2p.bin_b2 /system/vendor/firmware/
adb push cm-10.1.3-i9300/system/etc/wifi/bcmdhd_sta.bin_b0 /system/vendor/firmware/
adb push cm-10.1.3-i9300/system/etc/wifi/bcmdhd_sta.bin_b1 /system/vendor/firmware/
adb push cm-10.1.3-i9300/system/etc/wifi/bcmdhd_sta.bin_b2 /system/vendor/firmware/
adb push cm-10.1.3-i9300/system/etc/wifi/nvram_mfg.txt /system/vendor/firmware/
adb push cm-10.1.3-i9300/system/etc/wifi/nvram_mfg.txt_murata /system/vendor/firmware/
adb push cm-10.1.3-i9300/system/etc/wifi/nvram_mfg.txt_murata_b2 /system/vendor/firmware/
adb push cm-10.1.3-i9300/system/etc/wifi/nvram_mfg.txt_semcosh /system/vendor/firmware/
adb push cm-10.1.3-i9300/system/etc/wifi/nvram_net.txt /system/vendor/firmware/
adb push cm-10.1.3-i9300/system/etc/wifi/nvram_net.txt_murata /system/vendor/firmware/
adb push cm-10.1.3-i9300/system/etc/wifi/nvram_net.txt_murata_b2 /system/vendor/firmware/
adb push cm-10.1.3-i9300/system/etc/wifi/nvram_net.txt_semcosh /system/vendor/firmware/

Replicant 4.2 0002 and NFC on I9300

I’m using Replicant on my Samsung SIII (i9300) phone (see my earlier posts). During my vacation the Replicant project released version 4.2-0002 as a minor update to their initial 4.2 release. I didn’t anticipate any significant differences, so I followed the installation instructions but instead of “wipe data/factory reset” I chose “wipe cache partition” and rebooted. Everything appeared to work fine, but I soon discovered that NFC was not working. Using adb logcat I could get some error messages:

E/NFC-HCI ( 7022): HCI Timeout - Exception raised - Force restart of NFC service
F/libc    ( 7022): Fatal signal 11 (SIGSEGV) at 0xdeadbaad (code=1), thread 7046 (message)
I/DEBUG   ( 1900): *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***
I/DEBUG   ( 1900): Build fingerprint: 'samsung/m0xx/m0:4.1.1/JRO03C/I9300XXDLIB:user/release-keys'
I/DEBUG   ( 1900): Revision: '12'
I/DEBUG   ( 1900): pid: 7022, tid: 7046, name: message  >>> com.android.nfc <<<

The phone would loop trying to start NFC and having the NFC sub-system die over and over. Talking on #replicant channel, paulk quickly realized and fixed the bug. I had to rebuild the images to get things to work, so I took the time to create a new virtual machine based on Debian 7.5 for building Replicant on. As a side note, the only thing not covered by Replicant build dependency documentation was that I needed the Debian xmllint package to avoid a build failure and the Debian xsltproc package to avoid a error message being printed in the beginning of every build. Soon I had my own fresh images and installed them and NFC was working again, after installing the non-free libpn544_fw.so file.

During this, I noticed that there are multiple libpn544_fw.so files floating around. I have the following files:

version string source
libpn544_fw_C3_1_26_SP.so internet
libpn544_fw_C3_1_34_SP.so stock ROM on S3 bought in Sweden during 2013 and 2014 (two phones)
libpn544_fw_C3_1_39_SP.so internet

(For reference the md5sum's of these files are 682e50666effa919d557688c276edc48, b9364ba59de1947d4588f588229bae20 and 18b4e634d357849edbe139b04c939593 respectively.)

If you do not have any of these files available as /vendor/firmware/libpn544_fw.so you will get the following error message:

I/NfcService( 2488): Enabling NFC
D/NFCJNI  ( 2488): Start Initialization
E/NFC-HCI ( 2488): Could not open /system/vendor/firmware/libpn544_fw.so or /system/lib/libpn544_fw.so
E/NFCJNI  ( 2488): phLibNfc_Mgt_Initialize() returned 0x00ff[NFCSTATUS_FAILED]
E/NFC-HCI ( 2488): Could not open /system/vendor/firmware/libpn544_fw.so or /system/lib/libpn544_fw.so
W/NFCJNI  ( 2488): Firmware update FAILED
E/NFC-HCI ( 2488): Could not open /system/vendor/firmware/libpn544_fw.so or /system/lib/libpn544_fw.so
W/NFCJNI  ( 2488): Firmware update FAILED
E/NFC-HCI ( 2488): Could not open /system/vendor/firmware/libpn544_fw.so or /system/lib/libpn544_fw.so
W/NFCJNI  ( 2488): Firmware update FAILED
E/NFCJNI  ( 2488): Unable to update firmware, giving up
D/NFCJNI  ( 2488): phLibNfc_Mgt_UnConfigureDriver() returned 0x0000[NFCSTATUS_SUCCESS]
D/NFCJNI  ( 2488): Terminating client thread...
W/NfcService( 2488): Error enabling NFC

Using the first (26) file or the last (39) file does not appear to be working on my phone, I get the following error messages. Note that the line starting with 'NFC capabilities' has 'Rev = 34' in it, possibly indicating that I need the version 34 file.

I/NfcService( 5735): Enabling NFC
D/NFCJNI  ( 5735): Start Initialization
D/NFCJNI  ( 5735): NFC capabilities: HAL = 8150100, FW = b10122, HW = 620003, Model = 12, HCI = 1, Full_FW = 1, Rev = 34, FW Update Info = 8
D/NFCJNI  ( 5735): Download new Firmware
W/NFCJNI  ( 5735): Firmware update FAILED
D/NFCJNI  ( 5735): Download new Firmware
W/NFCJNI  ( 5735): Firmware update FAILED
D/NFCJNI  ( 5735): Download new Firmware
W/NFCJNI  ( 5735): Firmware update FAILED
E/NFCJNI  ( 5735): Unable to update firmware, giving up
D/NFCJNI  ( 5735): phLibNfc_Mgt_UnConfigureDriver() returned 0x0000[NFCSTATUS_SUCCESS]
D/NFCJNI  ( 5735): Terminating client thread...
W/NfcService( 5735): Error enabling NFC

Loading the 34 works fine.

I/NfcService( 2501): Enabling NFC
D/NFCJNI  ( 2501): Start Initialization
D/NFCJNI  ( 2501): NFC capabilities: HAL = 8150100, FW = b10122, HW = 620003, Model = 12, HCI = 1, Full_FW = 1, Rev = 34, FW Update Info = 0
D/NFCJNI  ( 2501): phLibNfc_SE_GetSecureElementList()
D/NFCJNI  ( 2501): 
D/NFCJNI  ( 2501): > Number of Secure Element(s) : 1
D/NFCJNI  ( 2501): phLibNfc_SE_GetSecureElementList(): SMX detected, handle=0xabcdef
D/NFCJNI  ( 2501): phLibNfc_SE_SetMode() returned 0x000d[NFCSTATUS_PENDING]
I/NFCJNI  ( 2501): NFC Initialized
D/NdefPushServer( 2501): start, thread = null
D/NdefPushServer( 2501): starting new server thread
D/NdefPushServer( 2501): about create LLCP service socket
D/NdefPushServer( 2501): created LLCP service socket
D/NdefPushServer( 2501): about to accept
D/NfcService( 2501): NFC-EE OFF
D/NfcService( 2501): NFC-C ON

What is interesting is, that my other S3 running CyanogenMod does not have the libpn544_fw.so file but still NFC works. The messages are:

I/NfcService( 2619): Enabling NFC
D/NFCJNI  ( 2619): Start Initialization
E/NFC-HCI ( 2619): Could not open /system/vendor/firmware/libpn544_fw.so or /system/lib/libpn544_fw.so
W/NFC     ( 2619): Firmware image not available: this device might be running old NFC firmware!
D/NFCJNI  ( 2619): NFC capabilities: HAL = 8150100, FW = b10122, HW = 620003, Model = 12, HCI = 1, Full_FW = 1, Rev = 34, FW Update Info = 0
D/NFCJNI  ( 2619): phLibNfc_SE_GetSecureElementList()
D/NFCJNI  ( 2619): 
D/NFCJNI  ( 2619): > Number of Secure Element(s) : 1
D/NFCJNI  ( 2619): phLibNfc_SE_GetSecureElementList(): SMX detected, handle=0xabcdef
D/NFCJNI  ( 2619): phLibNfc_SE_SetMode() returned 0x000d[NFCSTATUS_PENDING]
I/NFCJNI  ( 2619): NFC Initialized
D/NdefPushServer( 2619): start, thread = null
D/NdefPushServer( 2619): starting new server thread
D/NdefPushServer( 2619): about create LLCP service socket
D/NdefPushServer( 2619): created LLCP service socket
D/NdefPushServer( 2619): about to accept
D/NfcService( 2619): NFC-EE OFF
D/NfcService( 2619): NFC-C ON

Diffing the two NFC-relevant repositories between Replicant (external_libnfc-nxp and packages_apps_nfc) and CyanogenMod (android_external_libnfc-nxp and android_packages_apps_Nfc) I found a commit in Replicant that changes a soft-fail on missing firmware to a hard-fail. I manually reverted that patch in my build tree, and rebuilt and booted a new image. Enabling NFC now prints this on my Replicant phone:

I/NfcService( 2508): Enabling NFC
D/NFCJNI  ( 2508): Start Initialization
E/NFC-HCI ( 2508): Could not open /system/vendor/firmware/libpn544_fw.so or /system/lib/libpn544_fw.so
W/NFC     ( 2508): Firmware image not available: this device might be running old NFC firmware!
D/NFCJNI  ( 2508): NFC capabilities: HAL = 8150100, FW = b10122, HW = 620003, Model = 12, HCI = 1, Full_FW = 1, Rev = 34, FW Update Info = 0
D/NFCJNI  ( 2508): phLibNfc_SE_GetSecureElementList()
D/NFCJNI  ( 2508): 
D/NFCJNI  ( 2508): > Number of Secure Element(s) : 1
D/NFCJNI  ( 2508): phLibNfc_SE_GetSecureElementList(): SMX detected, handle=0xabcdef
D/NFCJNI  ( 2508): phLibNfc_SE_SetMode() returned 0x000d[NFCSTATUS_PENDING]
I/NFCJNI  ( 2508): NFC Initialized
D/NdefPushServer( 2508): start, thread = null
D/NdefPushServer( 2508): starting new server thread
D/NdefPushServer( 2508): about create LLCP service socket
D/NdefPushServer( 2508): created LLCP service socket
D/NdefPushServer( 2508): about to accept
D/NfcService( 2508): NFC-EE OFF
D/NfcService( 2508): NFC-C ON

And NFC works! At least YubiKey NEO with the Yubico Authenticator app. One less non-free blob on my phone.

I have double-checked that power-cycling the phone (even removing battery for a while) does not affect anything, so it seems the NFC chip has firmware loaded from the factory.

Question remains why that commit was added. Is it necessary on some other phone? I have no idea, other than if the patch is reverted, S3 owners will have NFC working with Replicant without non-free software added. Alternatively, make the patch apply only on the platform where it was needed, or even to all non-S3 builds.

Offline GnuPG Master Key and Subkeys on YubiKey NEO Smartcard

I have moved to a new OpenPGP key. There are many tutorials and blog posts on GnuPG key generation around, but none of them matched exactly the setup I wanted to have. So I wrote down the steps I took, to remember them if I need to in the future. Briefly my requirements were as follows:

  • The new master GnuPG key is on an USB stick.
  • The USB stick is only ever used on an offline computer.
  • There are subkeys stored on a YubiKey NEO smartcard for daily use.
  • I want to generate the subkeys using GnuPG so I have a backup.
  • Some non-default hash/cipher preferences encoded into the public key.

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OpenPGP Key Transition Statement

I have created a new OpenPGP key 54265e8c and will be transitioning away from my old key. If you have signed my old key, I would appreciate signatures on my new key as well. I have created a transition statement that can be downloaded from https://josefsson.org/key-transition-2014-06-22.txt.

Below is the signed statement.

-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE-----
Hash: SHA512

OpenPGP Key Transition Statement for Simon Josefsson

I have created a new OpenPGP key and will be transitioning away from
my old key.  The old key has not been compromised and will continue to
be valid for some time, but I prefer all future correspondence to be
encrypted to the new key, and will be making signatures with the new
key going forward.

I would like this new key to be re-integrated into the web of trust.
This message is signed by both keys to certify the transition.  My new
and old keys are signed by each other.  If you have signed my old key,
I would appreciate signatures on my new key as well, provided that
your signing policy permits that without re-authenticating me.

The old key, which I am transitioning away from, is:

pub   1280R/B565716F 2002-05-05
      Key fingerprint = 0424 D4EE 81A0 E3D1 19C6  F835 EDA2 1E94 B565 716F

The new key, to which I am transitioning, is:

pub   3744R/54265E8C 2014-06-22
      Key fingerprint = 9AA9 BDB1 1BB1 B99A 2128  5A33 0664 A769 5426 5E8C

The entire key may be downloaded from: https://josefsson.org/54265e8c.txt

To fetch the full new key from a public key server using GnuPG, run:

  gpg --keyserver keys.gnupg.net --recv-key 54265e8c

If you already know my old key, you can now verify that the new key is
signed by the old one:

  gpg --check-sigs 54265e8c

If you are satisfied that you've got the right key, and the User IDs
match what you expect, I would appreciate it if you would sign my key:

  gpg --sign-key 54265e8c

You can upload your signatures to a public keyserver directly:

  gpg --keyserver keys.gnupg.net --send-key 54265e8c

Or email simon@josefsson.org (possibly encrypted) the output from:

  gpg --armor --export 54265e8c

If you'd like any further verification or have any questions about the
transition please contact me directly.

To verify the integrity of this statement:

  wget -q -O- https://josefsson.org/key-transition-2014-06-22.txt|gpg --verify

/Simon
-----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE-----
Version: GnuPG v1.4.12 (GNU/Linux)
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=ZaqY
-----END PGP SIGNATURE-----

Creating a small JPEG photo for your OpenPGP key

I’m in the process of moving to a new OpenPGP key, and I want to include a small JPEG image of myself in it. The OpenPGP specification describes, in section 5.12.1 of RFC 4880, how an OpenPGP packet can contain an JPEG image. Unfortunately the document does not require or suggest any properties of images, nor does it warn about excessively large images. The GnuPG manual helpfully asserts that “Note that a very large JPEG will make for a very large key.”.

Researching this further, it seems that proprietary PGP program suggests 120×144 as the maximum size, although I haven’t found an authoritative source of that information. Looking at the GnuPG code, you can see that it suggests around 240×288 in a string saying “Keeping the image close to 240×288 is a good size to use”. Further, there is a warning displayed if the image is above 6144 bytes saying that “This JPEG is really large”.

I think the 6kb warning point is on the low side today, however without any more researched recommendation of image size, I’m inclined to go for a 6kb 240×288 image. Achieving this was not trivial, I ended up using GIMP to crop an image, resize it to 240×288, and then export it to JPEG. Chosing the relevant parameters during export is the tricky part. First, make sure to select ‘Show preview in image window’ so that you get a file size estimate and a preview of how the photo will look. I found the following settings useful for reducing size:

  • Disable “Save EXIF data”
  • Disable “Save thumbnail”
  • Disable “Save XMP data”
  • Change “Subsampling” from the default “4:4:4 (best quality)” to “4:2:0 (chroma quartered)”.
  • Try enabling only one of “Optimize” and “Progressive”. Sometimes I get best results disabling one and keeping the other enabled, and sometimes the other way around. I have not seen smaller size with both enabled, nor with both disabled.
  • Smooth the picture a bit to reduce pixel effects and size.
  • Change quality setting, I had to reduce it to around 25%.

See screenshot below of the settings windows.

GnuPG photo GIMP settings window

Eventually, I managed to get a photo that I was reasonable happy with. It is 240×288 and is 6048 bytes large.

GnuPG photo for Simon

If anyone has further information, or opinions, on what image sizes makes sense for OpenPGP photos, let me know. Ideas on how to reduce size of JPEG images further without reducing quality as much would be welcome.

Replicant 4.2 on Samsung S3

Since November 2013 I have been using Replicant on my Samsung S3 as an alternative OS. The experience has been good for everyday use. The limits (due to non-free software components) compared to a “normal” S3 (running vendor ROM or CyanogenMod) is lack of GPS/wifi/bluetooth/NFC/frontcamera functionality — although it is easy to get some of that working again, including GPS, which is nice for my geocaching hobby. The Replicant software is stable for being an Android platform; better than my Nexus 7 (2nd generation) tablet which I got around the same time that runs an unmodified version of Android. The S3 has crashed around ten times in these four months. I’ve lost track of the number of N7 crashes, especially after the upgrade to Android 4.4. I use the N7 significantly less than the S3, reinforcing my impression that Replicant is a stable Android. I have not had any other problem that I couldn’t explain, and have rarely had to reboot the device.

The Replicant project recently released version 4.2 and while I don’t expect the release to resolve any problem for me, I decided it was time to upgrade and learn something new. I initially tried the official ROM images, and later migrated to using my own build of the software (for no particular reason other than that I could).

Before the installation, I wanted to have a full backup of the phone to avoid losing data. I use SMS Backup+ to keep a backup of my call log, SMS and MMS on my own IMAP server. I use oandbackup to take a backup of all software and settings on the phone. I use DAVDroid for my contacts and calendar (using a Radicale server), and reluctantly still use aCal in order to access my Google Calendar (because Google does not implement RFC 5397 properly so it doesn’t work with DAVDroid). Alas all that software is not sufficient for backup purposes, for example photos are still not copied elsewhere. In order to have a complete backup of the phone, I’m using rsync over the android debug bridge (adb). More precisely, I connect the phone using a USB cable, push a rsyncd configuration file, start the rsync daemon on the phone, forward the TCP/IP port, and then launch rsync locally. The following commands are used:

jas@latte:~$ cat rsyncd.conf
address 127.0.0.1
uid = root
gid = root
[root]
path = /
jas@latte:~$ adb push rsyncd.conf /extSdCard/rsyncd.conf
* daemon not running. starting it now on port 5037 *
* daemon started successfully *
0 KB/s (57 bytes in 0.059s)
jas@latte:~$ adb root
jas@latte:~$ adb shell rsync --daemon --no-detach --config=/extSdCard/rsyncd.conf &
jas@latte:~$ adb forward tcp:6010 tcp:873
jas@latte:~$ sudo rsync -av --delete --exclude /dev --exclude /acct --exclude /sys --exclude /proc rsync://localhost:6010/root/ /root/s3-bup/
...

Now feeling safe that I would not lose any data, I remove the SIM card from my phone (to avoid having calls, SMS or cell data interrupt during the installation) and follow the Replicant Samsung S3 installation documentation. Installation was straightforward. I booted up the newly installed ROM and familiarized myself with it. My first reaction was that the graphics felt a bit slower compared to Replicant 4.0, but it is hard to tell for certain.

After installation, I took a quick rsync backup of the freshly installed phone, to have a starting point for future backups. Since my IMAP and CardDav/CalDav servers use certificates signed by CACert I first had to install the CACert trust anchors, to get SMS Backup+ and DAVDroid to connect. For some reason it was not sufficient to add only the root CACert certificate, so I had to add the intermediate CA cert as well. To load the certs, I invoke the following commands, selecting ‘Install from SD Card’ when the menu is invoked (twice).

adb push root.crt /sdcard/
adb shell am start -n "com.android.settings/.Settings\"\$\"SecuritySettingsActivity"
adb push class3.crt /sdcard/
adb shell am start -n "com.android.settings/.Settings\"\$\"SecuritySettingsActivity"

I restore apps with oandbackup, and I select a set of important apps that I want restored with settings preserved, including aCal, K9, Xabber, c:geo, OsmAnd~, NewsBlur, Google Authenticator. I install SMS Backup+ from FDroid separately and configure it, SMS Backup+ doesn’t seem to want to restore anything if the app was restored with settings using oandbackup. I install and configure the DAVdroid account with the server URL, and watch it populate my address book and calendar with information.

After organizing the icons on the launcher screen, and changing the wallpaper, I’m up and running with Replicant 4.2. This upgrade effort took me around two evenings to complete, with around half of the time consumed by exploring different ways to do the rsync backup before I settled on the rsync daemon approach. Compared to the last time, when I spent almost two weeks researching various options and preparing for the install, this felt like a swift process.

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Necrotizing Fasciitis

Dear World,

On the morning of December 24th I felt an unusual pain in my left hand between the thumb and forefinger. The pain increased and in the afternoon I got a high fever, at some point above 40 degrees Celsius or 104 degree Fahrenheit. I went to the emergency department and was hospitalized during the night between the 24th and 25th of December. On the afternoon of December 26th I underwent surgery to find out what was happening, and was then diagnosed with Necrotizing Fasciitis (the wikipedia article on NF gives a fair summary), caused by the common streptococcus bacteria (again see wikipedia article on Streptococcus). A popular name for the disease is flesh-eating bacteria. Necrotizing Fasciitis is a rare and aggresive infection, often deadly if left untreated, that can move through the body at speeds of a couple of centimeters per hour.

I have gone through 6 surgeries, leaving wounds all over my left hand and arm. I have felt afraid of what the disease will do to me, anxiety over what will happen in the future, confusion and uncertainty about how a disease like this can exist and that I get the right treatment since so little appears to be known about it. The feeling of loneliness and that nobody is helping, or even can help, has also been present. I have experienced pain. Even though pain is something I’m less afraid of (I have a back problem) compared to other feelings, I needed help from several pain killers. I’ve received normal Paracetamol, stronger NSAID’s (e.g., Ketorolac/Toradol), several Opioid pain-killers including Alfentanil/Rapifen, Tramadol/Tradolan, OxyContin/OxyNorm, and Morphine. After the first and second surgery, nothing helped and I was still screaming with pain and kicking the bed. After the first surgery, I received a local anesthetic (a plexus block). After the second surgery, the doctors did not want to masquerade my pain, because sign of pain indicate further growth of the infection, and I was given the pain-dissociative drug Ketamine/Ketalar and the stress-releasing Clonidine/Catapresan. Once the third surgery removed all of the infection, pain went down, and I experienced many positive feelings. I am very grateful to be alive. I felt a strong sense of inner power when I started to fight back against the decease. I find joy in even the simplest of things, like being able to drink water or seeing trees outside the window. I cried out of happiness when I saw our children’s room full of toys. I have learned many things about the human body, and I am curious by nature so I look forward to learn more. I hope to be able to draw strength from this incident, to help me prioritize better in my life.

My loving wife ├ůsa has gone through a nightmare as a consequence of my diagnosis. At day she had to cope with daily life taking care of our wonderful 1-year old daughter Ingrid and 3-year old boy Alfred. All three of them had various degrees of strep throat with fever, caused by the same bacteria — and anyone with young kids know how intense that alone can be. She gave me strength over the phone. She kept friends and relatives up to date about what happened, with the phone ringing all the time. She worked to get information out from the hospital about my status, sometimes being rudely treated and just being hanged up on. After a call with the doctor after the third surgery, when the infection had spread from the hand to the upper arm (5cm away from my torso), she started to plan for a life without me.

My last operation were on Thursday January 2nd and I left hospital the same day. I’m writing this on the Saturday of January 4rd, although some details and external links have been added after that. I have regained access to my arm and hand and doing rehab to regain muscle control, while my body is healing. I’m doing relaxation exercises to control pain and relax muscles, and took the last strong drug yesterday. Currently I take antibiotics (more precisely Clindamycin/Dalacin) and the common Paracetamol-based pain-killer Alvedon together with on-demand use of an also common NSAID containing Ibuprofen (Ipren). My wife and I were even out at a restaurant tonight.

Fortunately I was healthy when this started, and with bi-weekly training sessions for the last 2 years I was physically at my strongest peak in my 38 year old life (weighting 78kg or 170lb, height 182cm or 6 feet). I started working out to improve back issues, increase strength, and prepare for getting older. Exercise has never been my thing although I think it is fun to run medium distances (up to 10km).

I want thank everyone who helped me and our family through this, both professionally and personally, but I don’t know where to start. You know who you are. You are the reason I’m alive.

Naturally, I want to focus on getting well and spend time with my family now. I don’t yet know to what extent I will recover, but the prognosis is good. Don’t expect anything from me in the communities and organization that I’m active in (e.g., GNU, Debian, IETF, Yubico). I will come back as energy, time and priorities permits.

Replicant 4.0 on Samsung Galaxy S III

For the last half-year I have used CyanogenMod on an Nexus 4 as my main phone. Recently the touch functionality stopped working on parts of the display, and the glass on the back has started to crack. It seems modern phones are not built to last. For comparison, before the N4 I used a Nokia N900 for around 3 years without any hardware damages (in my drawer now, still working). A few weeks ago I started looking for a replacement. My experience with CyanogenMod had been good, but the number of proprietary blobs on the N4 concerned me. Finding something better wasn’t easy though, so I’m documenting my experience here.

My requirements were, briefly, that I wanted a phone that I could buy locally that had a free software community around it that produced a stable environment. I have modest requirements for things I wouldn’t give up on: telephony, data connection (3G), email (IMAP+SMTP), chat (XMPP), and a web browser. I like the philosophy and openness around the Firefox OS but the more I have read about it, it seems unlikely that it would deliver what I need today. In particular none of the devices capable of running Firefox OS appealed to me, and the state of email reading seemed unclear. I’m sure I’ll revisit Firefox OS as an alternative for me in the future.

As I had been happy with CyanogenMod, but concerned about its freeness, it felt natural to move on and test the more free software friendly project Replicant. Replicant only supports a small number of devices. After talking with people in the #replicant IRC channel, it seemed the Samsung S3 would be a decent choice for me. The Samsung S2 would have worked as well, but it cost almost as much as the S3 where I looked. Despite the large number of Samsung S3 devices out there, it seems the prices even for used devices are high (around 2500 SEK in Sweden, ~380 USD). I ended up buying a brand new one for 3200 SEK (~500 USD) which felt expensive, especially after recalling the recent $199 sale for Nexus 4. Noticing that brand new Nexus 4 devices are still over 3000 SEK in Sweden comforted me a bit. I would have preferred a more robust phone, like the CAT B15, but the state of free software OSes on them seem unclear and I wanted something stable. So, enough about the background, let’s get started.

Building and installing Replicant on the device was straight forward. I followed the Replicant Samsung S3 Build instructions to build my own images. The only issue I had was that I had not set JAVA_HOME and the defaults were bad; make sure to set JAVA_HOME before building. I built everything on my Lenovo X201 running Debian Wheezy, with OpenJDK 6 as the Java implementation. Installing the newly built firmware was easy, I just followed the installation process documentation. I made sure to take a clockworkmod backup to an external SD card before wiping the old system. To get a really clean new device, I also re-formated /sdcard inside clockworkmod; I noticed there were some traces left of the old system there.

I spent about one week testing various configurations before settling on something I could use daily. A fair amount of time was spent looking into backup and restore options for Android devices. My idea was that I would take a backup of the apps I ran on the N4 and transfer them to the S3. The Android Debug Bridge (adb) has a backup/restore command, however it (intentionally) ignores apps marked as allowBackup=false which a number of apps has. It doesn’t seem possible to override that settings — so much for the freedom to backup your own device. I then discovered oandbackup. It can backup your entire system, saving each app (together with associated data) into a separate directory, for simple review and inspection before restore. You can do batch backups and batch restore. I couldn’t get it to automatically restore things, though, which would be neat for really automated re-installations (there is an open issue about this feature). After noticing that some apps did not like being moved from the N4 (running Android 4.2) to the S3 (running 4.0), I ended up installing most apps from scratch on a freshly installed Replicant. I use oandbackup to the external SD card so that I can quickly restore my phone. For backup/restore of SMS/MMS and Call Log, I use SMS Backup+ against my own IMAP server. Camera pictures are synced manually using adb when I am connected to my laptop.

There is a number of apps that deserve to be mentioned because they are what I use on a daily basis. All of them come via the free software market F-Droid. For email (IMAP/SMTP), I use K-9 Mail which is feature rich but still easy to use. For chat, I use Xabber. I use NewsBlur‘s free software app to read RSS flows. For two-factor authentication, I use Google Authenticator. I haven’t evaluated different PDF viewers, but the first one I tried (APV PDF Viewer) has worked fine so far. Handling a a synchronized address book and calendar deserve its own blog post because it is a challenging topic, but briefly, I’m currently using a combination of aCal and DAVdroid.

Finally, since Replicant is still work in progress, some words about stability and notes on what doesn’t work. This is probably the most interesting part if you are considering running Replicant on an S3 yourself. Overall system stability is flawless, I hadn’t had any crash or problem with the fundamental functionality (telephony, 3G, Camera). People have said graphics feels a bit laggy, but I cannot compare with the stock ROM and it doesn’t get in the way of daily use. First some notes about non-free aspects:

  • Bluetooth doesn’t work by default. After installing /system/vendor/firmware/bcm4334.hcd (MD5 b6207104da0ca4a0b1da66448af7ed4c) pairing and testing with a Bluetooth headset worked fine.
  • Front camera doesn’t work by default. After installing /system/vendor/firmware/fimc_is_fw.bin (MD5 52eeaf0889bc9206860075cd9b7f80b9and) and /system/vendor/firmware/setfile.bin (MD5 0e6fdeb378fb154c39fd508ae28eaf2a) it works. The extensions are *.bin but I don’t believe this code is executed on the main CPU.
  • GPS doesn’t work by default. After installing /system/bin/gpsd (MD5 6757ed2e2a283259e67c62e6b2b9cfef), /system/lib/libsecril-client.so (MD5 a836df0f947d2aa2ef20dcb213317517), /system/lib/hw/gps.exynos4.so (MD5 1ea1d67f297dd52d59d40dbad9b02a0a) it works. This is code that runs on the main CPU, and even more alarming, it embeds a copy of OpenSSL and talks to various online servers for A-GPS, and is thus a likely (and probably not too challenging) attack vector for anyone wanting to remotely exploit any phone.
  • Wifi doesn’t work, and I haven’t gotten this to work. There is a list of non-free S3 firmware on the Replicant wiki however my stock ROM did not ship with those files. I don’t believe any of the blobs run on the main CPU.
  • NFC doesn’t work, and I haven’t gotten it to work. It seems the infrastructure for NFC is missing in Replicant 4.0, it doesn’t even expose the NFC hardware permission capability. This is quite unfortunate for me, since I daily work with YubiKey NEO and would have preferred to replace Google Authenticator with the YubiOATH that uses the NEO for OATH secret storage.

Some other observations:

  • Panorama mode in the Camera crashes; see issue about it.
  • There is a number of smaller graphical issues. I believe these are related to the EGL but haven’t understood the details. What I’ve noticed are the following issues. The task switcher doesn’t show mini screenshots of all running apps (the screenshots are just black). ZXing is not able to QR decode images (I’m told this is because Replicant uses a RGB color plane instead of the required YUV color plane). Video playback in the gallery is laggy to the point of being unusable. Video playback on Youtube in the default web browser works in full screen (not laggy), but not embedded in the webpage.
  • MTP has been a bit unreliable, my main laptop is able to import photos, but another laptop (also running Debian Wheezy) just stalls when talking to it. This may be a host issue, I have experience similar issues with a Nexus 7 2nd generation device.

I am quite happy with the setup so far, and I will continue to use it as my primary phone.